Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. [6] Jenkins, Henry. The domination of mainstream media outlets by corporate conglomerates makes maintaining and nurturing a franchise relatively easy. People are so bombarded with advertisements and sponsors that they are becoming more skilled at ignoring them. Media convergence describes the collaboration between, or fusion of, at least two types of media in mutually beneficial projects. Poking fun at alarmists who see every new technology as making children stupider, Johnson jokingly cautions readers against the dangers of book reading: It “chronically understimulates the senses” and is “tragically isolating.” Even worse, books “follow a fixed linear path. When countries with lower levels of GDP per capita catch up to countries with higher levels of GDP per capita, the process is called convergence. Media convergence is important because in today's technologically advanced world, different forms of technology continue to be released and are better than their former models because they can simply do more. In higher-income countries… Despite their ubiquity however, traditional cross-promotions are becoming less effective. If media conglomerates reward that demand, viewers will feel greater mastery and investment; deny it, and they stomp off in disgust.[5]. The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies. 1.2 Intersection of American Media and Culture, 1.5 The Role of Social Values in Communication, 3.3 Books and the Development of U.S. Popular Culture, 4.3 Different Styles and Models of Journalism, 4.4 How Newspapers Control the Public’s Access to Information and Impact American Pop Culture, 4.5 Current Popular Trends in the Newspaper Industry, 5.3 The Role of Magazines in the Development of American Popular Culture, 5.4 Major Publications in the Magazine Industry, 5.5 How Magazines Control the Public’s Access to Information, 5.7 Influence of the Internet on the Magazine Industry, 6.3 The Reciprocal Nature of Music and Culture, 6.4 Current Popular Trends in the Music Industry, 9.2 The Relationship Between Television and Culture, 9.3 Issues and Trends in the Television Industry, Chapter 10: Electronic Games and Entertainment, 10.4 The Impact of Video Games on Culture, 10.6 Blurring the Boundaries Between Video Games, Information, Entertainment, and Communication, Chapter 11: The Internet and Social Media, 11.4 The Effects of the Internet and Globalization on Popular Culture and Interpersonal Communication, Chapter 12: Advertising and Public Relations, 13.3 The Internet’s Effects on Media Economies, 14.4 Ethical Considerations of the Online World, 15.7 Media Influence on Laws and Government, 15.6 Digital Democracy and Its Possible Effects, 16.1 Changes in Media Over the Last Century, 16.3 Modern Media Delivery: Pros and Cons, 16.5 Privacy Laws and the Impact of Digital Surveillance, 16.6 Mass Media, New Technology, and the Public. Or a library’s card catalog? » Blog Archive » isthisarg.org Social Media Digest for May 10th, CHAPTER 1 The Era of Convergence: Primed for Transmedia Storytelling, Technological Convergence: Content in the Digital Age, Economic Convergence: Media Consolidation, If there are no prior comments there, a comment entry form will appear automatically, If there are already comments, you will see them and the form will be at the bottom of the thread. Economic convergence is the horizontal and vertical integration of the entertainment industry, in which a single company has interests across and within many kinds of media. Describe the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins and provide an example of each type that you’ve noted in your own experience. 4. Posted by Aaron Smith on June 17, 2009 Hogan, Marc. Media conglomerates attract diverse audiences into their franchise through various entry points — films, magazines, TV shows, news programs — and continue to barrage them with promotions in virtually every other medium. Carr worries that the vast array of interlinked information available through the Internet is eroding attention spans and making contemporary minds distracted and less capable of deep, thoughtful engagement with complex ideas and arguments. Altogether, this makes studies of media convergence, both its approaches and its results, highly relevant for the understanding of the digital creative economy. Digital convergence refers to the convergence of four industries into one conglomerate, ITTCE (Information Technologies, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, and Entertainment). As a New York Times editorial recently opined, “Few objects on the planet are farther removed from nature—less, say, like a rock or an insect—than a glass and stainless steel smartphone (New York Times, 2010).” But modern American culture is plugged in as never before, and today’s high school students have never known a world where the Internet didn’t exist. Then, answer the following questions. Roberta Pearson. How the media interacts with the society today. 13 March 2009. White, Livingston A. “Reconsidering Cultural Imperialism Theory,” TBS Journal 6 (2001), http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html. Due to this horizontal integration, the entertainment industry has a strong incentive to produce content that moves fluidly across media sectors. When more and more different kinds of media are transformed into digital content, as Jenkins notes, “we expand the potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms (Jenkins, 2001).”. Jenkins breaks convergence down into five categories: Economic convergence occurs when a company controls several products or services within the same industry. Economic convergence occurs when a company controls several products or services within the same industry. Similarly, dispersing narrative information across a wide range of channels (divergence) encourages consumers to pull together all the information and form a unified story (convergence). Review the viewpoints of Henry Jenkins, Steven Johnson, and Nicholas Carr. It is the convergence of many media technologies allowing one media product to perform many different tasks. In reality, audiences want the new work to offer new insights and new experiences. Broadband has the potential to transform social, economic and business growth. The economic strategy of media convergence (also known as media consolidation, media concentration or economic convergence) is a product of three elements. To many people, especially those who grew up in a world dominated by so-called old media, there is nothing organic about today’s media-dominated world. Ed. It is a two-step process. When was the last time you used a rotary phone? Some theorists believe that convergence and new-media technologies make people smarter by requiring them to make decisions and interact with the media they’re consuming; others fear the digital age is giving us access to more information but leaving us shallower. Technological convergence is when different kinds of technology merge. But convergence hasn’t erased old technologies; instead, it may have just altered the way we use them. Paul Keller – nigerian VCDs at kwakoe – CC BY 2.0. Instead of being slick and digitized, cassette tapes and Polaroid photos are physical objects that are made more accessible and more human, according to enthusiasts, because of their flaws. These factors have allowed media conglomerates to own different kinds of media (e.g., TV and radio stations and newspapers) in the sam… Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. In his 2005 book Everything Bad Is Good for You, Steven Johnson argues that today’s television and video games are mentally stimulating, in that they pose a cognitive challenge and invite active engagement and problem solving. The history of convergence is difficult to trace. A key insight of international economics is that there should be “convergence” between rich countries and poor countries, which is just another way of saying that low-income nations – all other things being equal – should grow faster than high-income nations and eventually attain the same level of prosperity.. Economic Convergence. In the first phase, telecommunication and IT market merge with each other, and both permeate with media market in the second phase81. For example, Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation is involved in book publishing (HarperCollins), newspapers (. Economic convergence ■ Market convergence and regulatory convergence The term market convergence means merging of telecommunication, information technology and media markets. Odds are it’s been a while. Today’s teenagers aren’t passively sitting in front of screens, quietly absorbing information. Economic convergence in media (ownership) Paper instructions: Instructions: 1. Indeed, fans are looking for deeper experiences in the stories they love. As a result, Jenkins argues, “if each work offers fresh experiences, then a crossover market will expand the potential gross within any individual media.”[6] That is, an Alias fan may not be a video gamer, but they’d be more than willing to try Alias: Underground if the game contained valuable information to the story world. Jenkins breaks convergence down into five categories: Nigeria’s Nollywood produces more films annually than any other country besides India. Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. Cultural Convergence. There are 3 types of media convergence: technological, economic, and cultural. Media theorist Henry Jenkins identifies the five kinds of convergence as the following: Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. The old definitions that provided separation between Radio, TV, Cable, Newspapers, and … Understanding Media and Culture by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. New York: New York Press, 2006. How do Steven Johnson and Nicholas Carr think convergence is affecting culture and society? [2] Wyatt, Justin. Media technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological system sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. Convergence has also made multitasking much easier, as many devices allow users to surf the Internet, listen to music, watch videos, play games, and reply to e-mails on the same machine. This is because the impact of new investment in physical and human capital on a low-income country may result in huge gains as new skills or equipment are combined with the labor force. The trick is to add something new and worthwhile to a franchise in order to facilitate an emotional connection with it. The distinctive Polaroid look—caused by uneven color saturation, underdevelopment or overdevelopment, or just daily atmospheric effects on the developing photograph—is emphatically analog. Either way, technological convergence and divergence have huge implications for the television industry. Nobody has a complete answer to this question. “The Fictional Institutions of Lost: World Building, Reality, and the Economic Possibilities of Narrative Divergence.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television Show. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. [1] Robert McChesney has argued that media ownership threatens our democracy. The difference is that it’s now possible to do all those things through one device—be it a personal computer or a smartphone—and through the Internet. Organic convergence is what happens when someone is watching a television show online while exchanging text messages with a friend and also listening to music in the background—the “natural” outcome of a diverse media world. Broadband has and will continue to become an increasing part of citizens’ day to day life, enabling commerce, education, health care, governance, and other social goods. Simply barraging consumers with branding is not enough. The merging of internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies. This convergence signifies that all industrialized nations are approaching a common level of prosperity. Convergence has transformed who uses these media and for what purposes, but it hasn’t eliminated these media. The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through various channels such as mobile terminals, digital TV, or the Internet. In an age of high resolution, portable printers, and camera phones, the Polaroid’s appeal to some has something to do with ideas of nostalgia and authenticity. Learn media convergence with free interactive flashcards. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. As a result, all economies should eventually converge in terms of per capita income. Some of its key features are: Dispersing content across a wide range of delivery channels (divergence) ensures multiple points of entry into a single media franchise (convergence). As Henry Jenkins points out in his influential book Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide: Franchise products are governed too much by economic logic and not enough by artistic vision. However, it’s still difficult to predict how media convergence and immersion are affecting culture, society, and individual brains. An extreme, and currently nonexistent, example of technological convergence would be the so-called black box, which would combine all the functions of previously distinct technology and would be the device through which we’d receive all our news, information, entertainment, and social interaction. When you need brief, factual information, when was the last time you reached for a volume of Encyclopedia Britannica? Take cassette tapes and Polaroid film, for example. Influential musician Thurston Moore of the band Sonic Youth recently claimed that he only listens to music on cassette. Media convergence is the merging of mass communication outlets – print, television, radio, the Internet along with portable and interactive technologies through various digital media platforms. http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7764-this-is-not-a-mixtape/2/, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/opinion/20sun4.html1, http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html, Next: 1.5 The Role of Social Values in Communication, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. London: IB Tauris, 2009. Whose argument do you find more compelling and why. [1]  Viacom, Time Warner, NewsCorp, Clear Channel and Disney all include separate divisions for the development of TV shows, films, comics, and video games. These statistics highlight some of the aspects of the new digital model of media consumption: participation and multitasking. politics, economics, sport, and so on, for column inches in these printed media; so far, so straightforward. Further, convergence refers to the blurring Jenkins, Henry. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. Children watch television because it’s fun, and are (very) unlikely to think of the possible impacts on their education. Cultural convergence has several aspects. It has become as much a necessity as food, water, and shelter. Justin Wyatt describes such marketable content in High Concept, arguing that the most lucrative franchises are those claiming a cast of stars, a distinctive style, and an easily digestible premise. Lewin, Tamar “If Your Kids Are Awake, They’re Probably Online,” New York Times, January 20, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html. convergence, as are transformations in national media systems in general, focusing on whether they are becoming more similar (Kleinsteuber, 2008). “Once I was a scuba diver in a sea of words,” Carr reflects ruefully. 27-51. Each response should be a minimum of one paragraph. V Viacom, Time Warner, NewsCorp, Clear Channel and Disney all include separate divisions for the development of TV shows, films, comics, and video games. It’s important to keep in mind that the implementation of new technologies doesn’t mean that the old ones simply vanish into dusty museums. Whatever the ultimate cognitive, social, or technological results, convergence is changing the way we relate to media today. Convergence is the movement of the price of a futures contract towards the spot price of the underlying cash commodity as the delivery date approaches. I Diverge,” Technology Review, June 2001, 93. And third, government deregulation. All of these habits, formerly common parts of daily life, have been rendered essentially obsolete through the progression of convergence. Polaroid Corporation, creators of the once-popular instant-film cameras, was driven out of business by digital photography in 2008, only to be revived 2 years later—with pop star Lady Gaga as the brand’s creative director. Define convergence as it relates to mass media and provide some examples of convergence you’ve observed in your life. How about a street-side pay phone? You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article. Cultural convergence is when stories flow across several kinds of media platforms and when readers or viewers can comment on, alter, or otherwise talk back to culture. Economic convergence in recent years has been most visible in company mergers. Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. Media convergence has been coming on slowly for decades. Many scholars and critics have noted that media ownership is controlled by an increasingly smaller number of mega-corporations. But convergence isn’t just limited to technology. Carr, Nicholas The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2010). “Convergence? The two prices must converge, or … The most common explanation for convergence is the constantly increasing speed at which new technologies spread across international borders. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. “I think there’s a group of people—fans and artists alike—out there to whom music is more than just a file on your computer, more than just a folder of MP3s,” says Brad Rose, founder of a Tulsa, Oklahoma-based cassette label (Hogan, 2010). A cell phone that also takes pictures and video is an example of the convergence of digital photography, digital video, and cellular telephone technologies. [7] Johnson sees “divergent narratives” as a more appropriate term to describe narratives extending not just through digital content, but also through newspapers, novels, magazines, and spaces of everyday life. [7] Johnson, Derek. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. [4] As a result, many corporations have discovered that creating emotional attachment to a product yields more responsive and loyal consumers. Innovations are constantly being diffused into goods and many are becoming an integral part of products. In general, media convergence falls into four general categories that will be covered in this bibliography: Introductory Works, Business Enterprise Convergence, Technology and Economic Performance, and Culture and Social Commentary. This risks instilling a general passivity in our children, making them feel as though they’re powerless to change their circumstances. Media conglomerates can retain a percentage of the profits from each branch, rather than having to outsource such components to a competitor. Tags: Uncategorized, Click the icon to the right of a paragraph, Click the icon to the right of the page title (works the same as paragraphs), Transmedia Storytelling in Television 2.0, is this ARG? “Star Wars' Galactic Dollars.” Forbes.com. This may sound like a fringe concern, something to be hemmed and hawed over by communications … The jury is still out on how these different types of convergence will affect people on an individual and societal level. [5] Jenkins, Henry. New digital media technology and services are considered as central drivers of creative industries. Such actions are enabled by media convergence, the process by which previously distinct technologies come to share tasks and resources. In Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. Such a cultural sea change causes a significant generation gap between those who grew up with new media and those who didn’t. Fewer large companies own more media properties. Instead, they are sending text messages to friends, linking news articles on Facebook, commenting on YouTube videos, writing reviews of television episodes to post online, and generally engaging with the culture they consume. With the introduction of digital technologies and media convergence much, but not A 2010 book by Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains is more pessimistic. Economic Convergence Is the horizontal integration of the entertainment industry. Derek Johnson argues that shows like Lost and Heroes disperse narrative information across media platforms in a process that is more like divergence than convergence. Why does this phenomenon occur? [3] It is unclear, of course, how much of this money goes to NewsCorp and how much goes to LucasFilm. Before going any further, it is important to understand the relationship between convergence and divergence because the two processes are inextricably linked. Technological convergence is the merging of technologies such as the ability to watch TV shows online on sites like Hulu or to play video games on mobile phones like the Apple iPhone. “Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski (Carr, 2010).” Carr cites neuroscience studies showing that when people try to do two things at once, they give less attention to each and perform the tasks less carefully. Today’s media consumers still watch television, listen to radio, read newspapers, and become immersed in movies. Twenty-first century media culture is increasingly marked by convergence, or the coming together of previously distinct technologies, as in a cell phone that also allows users to take video and check e-mail. Major publications have been experimenting with television and software applications since the 1970s and 1980s. In other words, multitasking makes us do a greater number of things poorly. A 2010 study by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that Americans aged 8 to 18 spend more than 7.5 hours with electronic devices each day—and, thanks to multitasking, they’re able to pack an average of 11 hours of media content into that 7.5 hours (Lewin, 2010). Convergence can occur even when both high- and low-income countries increase investment in physical and human capital with the objective of growing GDP. Greenberg, Andy. Name the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins. Johnson, Steven Everything Bad Is Good for You (Riverhead, NY: Riverhead Books, 2005). Global convergence is when geographically distant cultures are able to influence one another. 105 (See also Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration). Nigeria’s cinema industry, nicknamed Nollywood, takes its cues from India’s Bollywood, which is in turn inspired by Hollywood in the United States. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. [2] Star Wars might be the most powerful transmedia franchise, earning more than 22 billion dollars in 30 years.[3]. Jenkins’s concept of organic convergence is perhaps the most telling. It usually involves a process that decouples content from media, allowing the same story or entertainment to exist in multiple forms. [4] “Advertising the Digital Age.” Team Digital Company Blog. Media convergence can mean one of two things: Either the merging of previously distinct media technologies resulting from digitization and computer networking–some of which are covered elsewhere in this article–or an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together. First, digitization. Economic Convergence: Media Consolidation 1 Many scholars and critics have noted that media ownership is controlled by an increasingly smaller number of mega-corporations. 15 January 2003. 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